Smoking is toxic to human eggs and has long lasting negative effects even after a woman stops. Smoking can also impact sperm health.
While the exact number of alcoholic drinks needed to affect fertility is unclear, the best advice remains to reduce alcohol consumption to one or two glasses a day or cut it out altogether. There is no hard or fast rule with caffeine but it’s recommended to consume no more than two cups of coffee a day.
Folate is recommended for all women as it reduces the risk of neural tube defects (eg spina bifida). Many woman are also deficient in vitamin D and iodine - both are also considered an essential part of a woman’s preconception care. It’s recommended those wanting to conceive add prenatal vitamins to their diet three months before starting to try.